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Li, M., Liu, H., Bi, Y., Sun, J., Wong, G., Liu, D., Li, L., Liu, J., Chen, Q., Wang, H. and He, Y. 2017. Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza A (H5N8) Virus in Wild Migratory Birds, Qinghai Lake, China. Emerging infectious diseases, 23(4): 637-640. https://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/23/4/pdfs/16-1866.pdf

Verhagen, J.H., Lexmond, P., Vuong, O., Schutten, M., Guldemeester, J., Osterhaus, A.D., Elbers, A.R., Slaterus, R., Hornman, M., Koch, G. and Fouchier, R.A. 2017. Discordant detection of avian influenza virus subtypes in time and space between poultry and wild birds; Towards improvement of surveillance programs. PloS one 12(3), p.e0173470. http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0173470

Kang, Y., Liu, L., Feng, M., Yuan, R., Huang, C., Tan, Y., Gao, P., Xiang, D., Zhao, X., Li, Y. and Irwin, D.M. 2017. Highly Pathogenic H5N6 Influenza A Viruses Recovered from Wild Birds in Guangdong, Southern China, 2014–2015. Scientific Reports 7: 44410. http://www.nature.com/articles/srep44410

Lee, D.H., Torchetti, M.K., Killian, M.L., DeLiberto, T.J. and Swayne, D.E. 2017. Reoccurrence of avian influenza A (H5N2) virus clade 2.3. 4.4 in wild birds, Alaska, USA, 2016. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(2): 365-367. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5324823/pdf/16-1616.pdf


Lycett, S.J., R. Bodewes, A. Pohlmann, J. Banks, K. Bányai, M.F. Boni, R. Bouwstra, L. Lu. 2016. Role for migratory wild birds in the global spread of avian influenza H5N8. Science 354(6309): 213-217.

Barriga, G.P., D. Boric-Bargetto, M.C. San Martin, V. Neira, H. van Bakel, M. Thompsom, R. Tapia, D. Toro-Ascuy, L. Moreno, Y. Vasquez, M. Sallaberry. 2016. Avian Influenza Virus H5 Strain with North American and Eurasian Lineage Genes in an Antarctic Penguin. Emerging Infectious Diseases 22(12): 2221.

Gonzalez-Reiche, A.S., Müller, M.L., Ortiz, L., Cordón-Rosales, C. and Perez, D.R. 2016. Prevalence and diversity of low pathogenicity avian influenza viruses in wild birds in Guatemala, 2010–2013. Avian diseases, 60: 359-364.

Hill, S.C., Manvell, R.J., Schulenburg, B., Shell, W., Wikramaratna, P.S., Perrins, C., Sheldon, B.C., Brown, I.H. and Pybus, O.G. 2016. Antibody responses to avian influenza viruses in wild birds broaden with age. In Proc. R. Soc. B 283 (1845): 20162159.

Su, S., Xing, G., Wang, J., Li, Z., Gu, J., Yan, L., Lei, J., Ji, S., Hu, B., Gray, G.C. and Yan, Y. 2016. Characterization of H7N2 Avian Influenza Virus in Wild Birds and Pikas in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau Area. Scientific Reports 6: 30974. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4995509/pdf/srep30974.pdf

Chen, L.J., Lin, X.D., Guo, W.P., Tian, J.H., Wang, W., Ying, X.H., Wang, M.R., Yu, B., Yang, Z.Q., Shi, M. and Holmes, E.C. 2016. Diversity and evolution of avian influenza viruses in live poultry markets, free-range poultry and wild wetland birds in China. Journal of General Virology 97(4): 844-854.

Steensels, M., Vangeluwe, D., Linden, A., Houdart, P., van den Berg, T.P. and Lambrecht, B., 2016. One Decade of Active Avian Influenza Wild Bird Surveillance in Belgium Showed a Higher Viroprevalence in Hunter-Harvested Than in Live-Ringed Birds. Avian Diseases 60: 387-393.


Flint, P.L., J.M. Pearce, J.C. Franson, D.V. Derksen. 2015. Wild bird surveillance for highly pathogenic avian influenza H5 in North America. Virology Journal 12:151.

Fujimoto, Y., T. Usui, H. Ito, E. Ono, & T. Ito. 2015. Susceptibility of wild passerines to subtype H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses. Avian Pathology 44(4): 243-247. doi: 10.1080/03079457.2015.1043235

Harris, M.C., A.K. Miles, J.M. Pearce, D.J. Prosser, J.M. Sleeman, & M.E. Whalen. 2015. USGS Role and Response to Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza. U.S. Geological Survey Fact Sheet 2015-3059, 2 p., http://dx.doi.org/10.3133/fs20153059. ISSN 2327-6932 (online)

Ip, H.S. et al. 2015. Novel Eurasian Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza A H5 Viruses in Wild Birds, Washington, USA, 2014. Emerging Infectious Diseases 21(5): 886-890. doi: 10.3201/eid2105.142020

Machalaba, C.C. et al. (2015). Global Avian Influenza Surveillance in Wild Birds: A Strategy to Capture Viral Diversity. Emerging Infectious Diseases 21(4): e141415.

Stephen, C.P. Zimmer, E. Moffatt, & J. Parmley. 2015. Considerations for planning future wild bird avian influenza surveillance in Canada. Document prepared for Canadian Food Inspection Agency.

van den Brand, J.M.A. et al. 2015. Host-specific exposure and fatal neurologic disease in wild raptors from highly pathogenic avian influenza virus H5N1 during the 2006 outbreak in Germany. Veterinary Research 46:24 doi: 10.1186/s13567-015-0148-5


Bevins, S. N., Pedersen, K., Lutman, M. W., Baroch, J. A., Schmit, B. S., Kohler, D., ... & DeLiberto, T. J. (2014). Large-scale avian influenza surveillance in wild birds throughout the United States. PloS ONE, 9(8), e104360

Caron, A. et al. 2014. Bridge hosts for avian influenza viruses at the wildlife/domestic interface: An eco-epidemiological framework implemented in southern Africa. Preventive Veterinary Medicine 117(3-4): 590-600 doi:10.1016/j.prevetmed.2014.09.014

Fuller, T.L., et al. 2014. Avian influenza surveillance in Central and West Africa, 2010–2014. Epidemiology & Infection 143(10): 2205-2212. doi: : http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0950268814003586

Latorre-Margalef, N., C. Tolf, V. Grosbois, A. Avril, D. Bengtsson et al. 2014. Long-term variation in influenza A virus prevalence and subtype diversity in migratory Mallards in Northern Europe. Proc R Soc B Biol Sci. 281(1781): 20140098 doi: 10.1098/rspb.2014.0098

Olson, S. H., Parmley, J., et al,. (2014). Sampling strategies and biodiversity of influenza a subtypes in wild birds. PloS ONE, 9(3), e90826.

Slusher, M.J. et al. 2014. Are passerine birds reservoirs for influenza A viruses? Journal of Wildlife Diseases 50(4): 792-809 doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.7589/2014-02-043


Ofula, V.O., et al (2013). Detection of avian influenza viruses in wild waterbirds in the Rift Valley of Kenya using fecal sampling. Vector borne and zoonotic diseases (Larchmont, N.Y.) 13(6): 394-400.

Pandit, P. S., Bunn, D. A., Pande, S. A., Aly, S. S. (2013). Modeling highly pathogenic avian influenza transmission in wild birds and poultry in West Bengal, India. Scientific reports, 3.


Burns, T. E., Ribble, C., Stephen, C., Kelton, D., Toews, L., Osterhold, J., & Wheeler, H. (2012). Use of observed wild bird activity on poultry farms and a literature review to target species as high priority for avian influenza testing in 2 regions of Canada. Canadian Veterinary Journal, 53(2), 158–166.

Gunnarsson G. et al. 2012. Disease dynamics and bird migration—linking mallards Anas platyrhynchos and subtype diversity of the influenza A virus in time and space. PLoS One 7: e35679.

Henaux, V., et al. (2012). Presence of avian influenza viruses in waterfowl and wetlands during summer 2010 in California: are resident birds a potential reservoir?. PloS ONE 7(2): e31471.

Hjulsager, C. K. et al. (2012). Surveillance for avian influenza viruses in wild birds in Denmark and Greenland, 2007-10. Avian Diseases, 56(4S1): 992-998.

Racicot, Manon, et al. (2012). Evaluation of strategies to enhance biosecurity compliance on poultry farms in Quebec: effect of audits and cameras. Preventive Veterinary Medicine, 103(2): 208-218.

Soos, C., J.E. Parmley, K. McAloney, B. Pollard, E. Jenkins et al. 2012. Bait trapping linked to higher avian influenza virus detection in wild ducks. JWildl Dis 48: 444–448. doi: 10.7589/0090-3558-48.2.444

Stallknecht, D. E., et al. (2012). Detection of avian influenza viruses from shorebirds: evaluation of surveillance and testing approaches. Journal of Wildlife Diseases, 48(2): 382-393


Sawford K et al. (2011). Development and Application of a Framework for Emerging Infectious Disease
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Feare C.J. (2010) Role of Wild Birds in the Spread of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus H5N1 and Implications for Global Surveillance: Avian Diseases 54 (1):201-221, Supplement: Proceedings of the Seventh International Symposium on Avian Influenza

Hansbro, P.M., S. Warner, J.P. Tracey, K.E. Arzey, P. Selleck P, et al. 2010. Surveillance and analysis of avian influenza viruses, Australia. Emerg Infect Dis 16: 1896–1904.

Hoye, B.J., V.J. Munster, H. Nishiura, M. Klaassen, R a M Fouchier. 2010. Surveillance of wild birds for avian influenza virus. Emerg Infect Dis 16: 1827–1834.

Kang, H. M., Jeong, O. M et al (2010). Surveillance of avian influenza virus in wild bird fecal samples from
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Hoye, BJ., et al. (2010).Surveillance of wild birds for avian influenza virus. Emerging infectious disease 16(12): 1827.

Tran, A., Goutard, F., Chamaillé, L., Baghdadi, N., Seen, D. L. (2010). Remote sensing and avian influenza:
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Deliberto, T. J., Swafford, S. R., Nolte, D. L., Pedersen, K., Lutman, M. W., Schmit, B. B., ... & Franklin, A. (2009). Surveillance for highly pathogenic avian influenza in wild birds in the USA. Integrative Zoology, 4(4), 426-439.

Doherty, P.F. & K.R. Wilson. 2009. Avian Influenza Risk Assessment for the United States: Modeling pathways of disease spread by wild birds. Available: http://origem.info/FIC/pdf/Davis_etal_Avian_flu_risk_assess_US_modeling_pways_USDA_Jul09.pdf. Accessed 05 November 2015.

Latorre-Margalef, N. et al. 2009. Effects of influenza A virus infection on migrating mallard ducks. Proc Biol Sci 276: 1029–1036.

Munster, V.J. et al. 2009. Practical considerations for high-throughput influenza A virus surveillance studies of wild birds by use of molecular diagnostic tests. J Clin Microbiol 47: 666–673.

Parmley, Jane, Stephane Lair, and Frederick A. Leighton. (2009). Canada’s inter‐agency wild bird influenza survey. Integrative Zoology, 4(4):409-417.

Wilking H, Ziller M, et al. (2009) Chances and Limitations of Wild Bird Monitoring for the Avian Influenza Virus H5N1 — Detection of Pathogens Highly Mobile in Time and Space. PLoS ONE 4(8): e6639. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0006639


Dugan, V.G., R. Chen, D.J. Spiro, N. Sengamalay, J. Zaborsky et al. 2008. The evolutionary genetics and emergence of avian influenza viruses in wild birds. PLoS Pathog 4: e1000076.

Koehler, A.V., J.M. Pearce, P.L. Flint, J.C. Franson, H.S. Ip. 2008. Genetic evidence of intercontinental movement of avian influenza in a migratory bird: the northern pintail (Anas acuta). Mol Ecol 17: 4754–4762.

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Alexander, D. J. (2007). An overview of the epidemiology of avian influenza. Vaccine, 25(30): 5637-5644.

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